Lighting 101 - Understanding Your Flash

(Photo by Strobist reader GreggBK)

So let's talk about the basic gear you'll need to learn how to light, beginning with your flash. Generally, most people at this point will have a DSLR, a lens or two and a typical flash. (I.e., the removable kind that mounts to the top of your camera, not the built-in pop-up kind.) If so, you have already bought the expensive stuff. The gear to use that flash off-camera is surprisingly, refreshingly cheap.

But before we get to that, let's take a moment and talk about your flash.

The Bare Essentials

So, here's what your flash absolutely has to have: The ability to work in manual mode, and to do so at different power settings. (I.e., full power, ½ power, ¼ power, etc.)

And that's it.

Most flashes, including the one you probably already have, include that capability. And that's the only thing that is mandatory. If your flash has that, skip buying another flash for right now until you have a chance to play with the gear you already have. You may really be surprised at what you can learn to do with it.

So take a quick look at your flash and see if it can go into manual mode, or "M". If your flash has manual setting that you can vary, you are golden. Most of your major wallet pain has already happened. (Woo hoo!)

IMPORTANT NOTE: If your flash is more than, say, 10-15 years old, do a little research to make sure it is safe to directly hook up to a modern digital camera. Some old flashes can fry the electronics of a digital camera. And once that little bit of magic smoke escapes your camera, it is almost impossible to get it back in…

Since we're going to learn to use that flash off-camera, we'll have to synchronize it with your shutter so your flash will go off when you take the photo.

Normally, this happens with electrical connections on your flash's hot shoe, which is the built-in electrical connection that is completed when you mount your flash to your camera. When your flash is off-camera, that physical connection is no longer there. But you can electrically sync it with a simple wire, called a sync cord.

Sadly, your flash almost certainly does not have the jack for this external sync capability. But no worries, you can add it for about $15 bucks. At the other end of the sync cord connection, your camera also probably does not have a ⅛" jack. But a second, same $15 device (pictured at left) will add the capability to your camera, too. Then you can use a cheap ⅛" audio cord to sync your flash.

This little doohickey also adds an old-style "PC" jack, (it's on the other side and not visible in the photo above) which means it will marry just about any camera to just about any off-camera flash. For that reason, I like to call it a Universal Translator. But no need to worry about that now—we'll get to it later.

Very important: We are not about spending unnecessary money around here. Relax in knowing that most everything in the basic kit from here is going to be inexpensive. So you got that going for you, which is nice.

And that's the basics on your flash. Let's look at the gear you'll need to turn it into your own little portable lighting studio…

NEXT: Your Studio-to-Go: A Basic Kit


Brand new to Strobist? Start here | Or jump right to Lighting 101
Connect w/Strobist readers via: Words | Photos

Comments are closed. Question? Hit me on Twitter: @Strobist


Anonymous Anonymous said...

How long do those old Nikon flashes(SB-24/25/26) last? Sounds like a great deal, but I'm afraid of buying a used one on it's last leg.

August 19, 2006 12:26 AM  
Anonymous Kreego said...

I've got a pair of Vivitar 5600s (the ones with the Zoom heads) and they're both from the early '80s. Utterly reliable, powerful and cheap. Flashes of that vintage (like the Nikons mentioned) are not particularly complex, so you shouldn't be too concerned...

August 23, 2006 7:09 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Canon pro flashes do have manual power. No PC socket though. It's a pain because I have three strobes - a Canon 540 EZ and two Metz 45 CL 4's, but due to the fact that there is no PC socket on the canon, I can only use the two Metz's wirelessly.

September 12, 2006 6:56 PM  
Anonymous Jamie said...

I have a Canon 540EZ too, it has manual from full power to 1/128 power.

I think you can buy PC to hotshoe adapters that are safe to use with it - why not try one of those.

September 16, 2006 8:56 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I have 2 Canon 550ex that are great on ETTL mode and I am not about to give them up because they dont have a PC socket. Does anybody have experience using those flash with a reliable (safe)hotshoe converter w/PC ? What make ?

September 24, 2006 6:22 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

My extreme excitement at finding this site left me chomping at the bit to get started in Lighting 101. Imagine my disappointment when, within the spce of two paragraphs I discovered that as a Canon photographer, I'm already left out. I'll poke through the lesson now and see what there is to see, but my bubble has been burst. Ugh. Not much more to say. Bad Canon for making pro products and leaving out pro(?) features. I guess thanks are in order for Strobist for at least lettting me down early enough to have not wasted much of my time.

October 04, 2006 3:15 PM  
Anonymous Michael said...

Same here. I use 4 canon speedlites with e-ttl II, but two of them are 420s which do not support manual flashing. So, I am stopped before I start - unless I spend yet another $700 on two all-new 430 flashes.

October 13, 2006 8:37 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I just bought a 580EX - no pc connection. Are there any lower cost options for us Canon users that will function in most areas fairly well?

October 20, 2006 3:43 AM  
Anonymous Tom said...

I have a Canon EOS 300D, a Speedlite 550EX and a hotshoe-to-idontknowwhat adapter (for studio shoots). What else do I need to be able to do off-camera lighting?

Would I be able to use that Nikon SB-24 flash as a second light source? What (besides that flash) else do I need and what would the setup be?

October 20, 2006 2:30 PM  
Anonymous Matthew said...

The Sony FL-36 flash unit works perfectly on the KM for off-camera lighting - I read this blog a while back before I had the chance to do off-camera work, but since my camera upgrade and my new flash (wireless off-camera by default, nice for me on a budget) I'm just coming back and learning a heap more.

Great read!

October 29, 2006 4:50 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

'Very soon, most of these variables will get to be instinctive, and you can concentrate on the two or three that will define the quality of pight in your photo.'

pight = light


October 29, 2006 5:38 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

i use 2 - Canon 580EX's and 2 - Canon 430EX's in iTTL mode and control them from one channel in 2 groups (A & B) using the Canon ST-E2 Wireless Commander. You can remotely set the lighting ratio between the two groups... its pretty nice without using studio strobes

November 24, 2006 4:21 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Don't know why the PC Sync is such a big deal on the canons. The 10D, 20D, 30D, 5D, and 1D etc. have a PC sync on the left hand side of the body. lift up the rubber flap and there it is. and if you have a rebel/xt and you're spending $350 for a 580EX, what's the big deal with paying $50 or whatever for a hotshoe converter?

November 25, 2006 1:56 PM  
Blogger Daryl said...

Is that a PC sync, or a remote trigger socket? In any case I have a Canon set of PC sync camera hotshoe / Flash hotshoe with tripod mount and a 10 foot cord to connect the two. Problem is that it was made for the T/90 era cameras. Any idea if this setup is forward compatible with EOS? I'll be asking the same question in the Flickr forum...

December 01, 2006 11:22 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

If I want to buy new equipments, instead of used ones recommended here. How do these strobes compared to inexpensive monolights? A Paterson kit includes 2 150Ws monolights with modeling lights, umbrella, light stangs cost $524 at B&H, while 1 Canon 430EX costs $240, 1 580EX costs $370. I understand these hot shoe strobes are much smaller and lighter, but if mobility is not critical, is it better to go with monolights?

December 01, 2006 4:55 PM  
Anonymous Jason Winshell said...

For Canon flashes (missing a PC connector!) you can buy a gismo from Paramount Cords ( that connects the pocket wizard via a hotshoe/coldshoe to the bottom of the flash.

It's on the web page:

There are two parts:

PW-MHSF1, the main gizmo
Fits all flashes with shoe mount including Canon 550, 580EX fit. The cable runs from the PW-MHSF1 to the pocket wizard. I think you get the part below (MHSF1) with the PW-MHSF1. $45

Shoe Adaptor for MHSF1
1/4 20 threaded metal mount at bottom of the connector ( left ) Camera cold shoe with screw. This adds a screw on cold shoe to the bottom of the PW-MHSF1 so that you can once again mount the flash unit to a cold shoe female. $5

I know that the information above is mentioned in various places, but I thought it would be helpful to post this comment right here.


December 11, 2006 1:04 PM  
Blogger Chet said...

Wait a minute, wait a minute. I don't understand all the flurry and frustration with Canon. Maybe I'm not seeing things clearly here....maybe someone can explain.
You are telling us that we need to have a strobe that can be triggered externally via the camera's PC connection. Canon makes the STE2 Speedlite Transmitter for the 580EX, 550EX and the 420EX Speedlites. Isn't this what you mean???

Also, you say that we need a strobe that can be set to manual power and "dialed down". Can't the Canon Speedlights do this?

Will someone please respond to this, as I would love to immerse myself into this site (I'm a novice) and learn how to better (and more creatively) light my scenes.

December 22, 2006 10:52 AM  
Blogger David said...


No prob on the STE2 setup. This are great to use if you have the right gear. But they can also be very limiting WRT light positions and distances. See the Nikon CLS vs Pocket Wizard piece in the indexed archives for more info.


December 22, 2006 1:49 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Eight decisions you get to make, with an infinite number of possibilities.

OK, I'll bite... what is the eighth decision? I count only seven bullets... I'm not counting "why" as a decision, since it's a reason.

January 13, 2007 6:20 PM  
Anonymous Barry L. Atkins said...

Hey Mr. Hobby
I've been lurkin' around here for a while now. I'm so Excited about getting my SB-24 from ebay for less than $70 and there's another one on the way if I win the auction.
Barry L. Atkins

January 28, 2007 4:51 PM  
Anonymous Mat said...


so, I've been reading strobist for a while now and it helped me choose flashes over strobes for my hobby photography. So I got sb-26, and I already own sb-600 and D70s.
I was hoping, I could use D70s build in flash in commander mode to trigger sb-600 and sb-26 at the same time. But it doesn't work. I did a lot of tests, but I can't get it to work. Before I go to the store and buy either a optical trigger adapter or sync adapter and cords for sb-600, I'd like to ask if anyone here managed to make my idea work? D70s, sb-600 and sb-26 both wireless off cam in any flash mode?


February 05, 2007 7:15 AM  
Anonymous Mat said...

I'll answer my own question above, until someone else comments on it.

I've made it work. It's kinda limited, but works for my needs.

Classic light setup: main light on one side, fill light on the other side.
I've put a hood on D70s build in flash and pointed it to SB600 (main light). I've putted it in TTL commander mode, SB600 in wireless mode and SB-26 in slave mode. Fired and it worked. Build in flash triggered the SB600, which triggered SB-26. I have both flashes off cam, wireless and main light is TTL mode as well.

February 05, 2007 10:05 AM  
Blogger Aaron said...

I am just getting started in lighting for shots and I have a Sony f828 camera. I have been looking around,but I can't find a Nikkon Speedlight-esque flash for my Sony. Does anyone know what I should buy or did I make a mistake by sinking a grand into a Sony digital cam that has limited options [besides the horrible digital viewfinder that is].

February 15, 2007 11:19 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I am a Nikon shooter and my flash setup consists of a sb80DX on camera and a vivitar 285 on a stand with an umbrella adapter. The vivitar is triggered by a peanut slave I bought 10 years ago for twelve dollars. YOu can get them now for about eighteen dollars - they last and are infinitely handy. I can get F8 at twenty feet with the 285 bouncing of a silver umbrella. This setup has lots of bang for the buck.

March 06, 2007 12:17 AM  
Blogger Aqua said...

I already own a CANON Speedlite 580EX and will get the STE-E2 transmitter to use it off camera.

My questions are:

¿Should I buy another 580EX or a 430EX? ¿Any significant difference between the two when using this additional unit as a slave?

Thank you for your comments

March 16, 2007 4:51 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Is optical slave a reasonable option?
I could set my my D70's built in strobe to manual, say 1/16th. Is that a bad idea?

March 22, 2007 9:50 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


EOS cameras with PC sockets:
EOS 1, 1N, 1NRS, 5/A2/A2E, 3, 1V, 1D, 1Ds, D30, D60, 10D, 1D mark II, 1Ds mark II, 20D/20Da, 1D mark IIN, 1D mark III, 5D, 30D.

Speedlite flash units with PC sockets:
480EG (via the optional Synchro Cord 480), 580EX II.

there is a site - Flash photography with Canon EOS -

March 28, 2007 9:30 AM  
Blogger Rowlock said...

Canon have listened to our pleas, and put a PC socket on the new 580EX II! Huzzah!

So now Canon users have an option that covers both the critical requirements... We just need to wait 10 years for the price to come down.

April 10, 2007 6:48 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

What about third party flashes, like Metz or Sunpak? Any ideas? I recently got a Sunpak MZ440 AF on ebay for $50... Anyone know about less expensive alternatives like this one, that have the PC-shoe adapter/cord and have a manual setting?

April 11, 2007 12:18 PM  
Blogger Matt said...

OK. Forgive another n00b here. I've read the article several times and whilst it says you need the PC socket, in my opinion it doesn't really say why.

So I've got the Canon 350D and want to get started with flash. The obvious choice seems like the 430EX. I want to get creative but can't really justify the cost of the 580EX II.

So what's the recommendation?

April 26, 2007 6:29 AM  
Anonymous aj said...

thanks to strobist, I decided to get an Nikon sb-26 (although I am a Canon user) -- it just arrived today, and boy is that a nice little unit! Easy to use, solid ... I guess it might not be the only sb-26 I'll buy ;-)

April 27, 2007 8:48 AM  
Anonymous mely said...

I'm just learning about flash photography so can any one tell me what is the purpose of the pc socket on the flash unit. Its one of the first things mentioned in this section and I have no clue what its all about and don't want to go to the next section all confused.


June 19, 2007 12:08 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Yes, as people have mentioned, most Canon DSLRs have a PC sync RIGHT ON THE CAMERA. How do Canon users not know this? Why buy a hot shoe adapter, unless you have a Rebel?

June 19, 2007 9:58 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

For Canon Users the easiest setup which allows you all the control you can use is to use the ST2E with multiple copies of the 420 or 430 speedlights. One ST2E and One 430 from Amazon cost the same as one 580 and gives you an Off Camera light.

Although technically IR is "line of sight" it easily passes through umbrellas and bounces off walls just like the flash does. I have found no problem using mine outdoors in bright sunlight up to about 40 feet.

June 23, 2007 8:10 PM  
Blogger nlx said...

What about Pentax and Sigma flashes ?

June 25, 2007 2:19 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Not sure where i should place this question as it's purely a tech question, here goes, What's the best way to shut off my built in camera flash so it doesn't interfere with my off camera flash?
I'm using a Nikon D80 in commander mode(wireless) and a Nikon SB600 as off camera flash.

June 29, 2007 8:45 AM  
Anonymous Shawn said...

I would caution against using the ST2E for indoor sporting events. I've tried it before and it is just not very dependable from long distances. This is why the original recommendation for the article is to have a flash that can be triggered via a PC connection since this is what you need for radio triggering (PocketWizard, FreeWire, RadioSlave, etc.). If you're outdoors it maybe be OK but I've never had good look indoors with this transmitter and would highly recommend a radio trigger for any serious work. Save yourself a lot of frustration later and and buy the adapters if you're shootin Canon and aren't using a 580ex II.

July 02, 2007 4:01 PM  
Anonymous Pinkk said...

If I am taking pictures in a studio environment, would I still need an external flash? I am using an Nikon D70. Thanks for the help.


August 09, 2007 9:49 PM  
Anonymous Don Winkler said...

Keep reading the strobist...It will answer all your question....!!

Wink of an eye Digital

October 18, 2007 8:34 AM  
Blogger mstrodl said...

Wonderful Community:
I have a Nikon D50. I thought I solved my Studio lighting problems until I read your threads. I was using a small external pilot light a Vivitar 283 Main side light. Yet now I am concerned about voltage spikes on my hot shoe ? Will it blow up ? I love Locations and speed, the SB outfit for me seams too pricey $ 550. for basically a single light (controller), weighty, although the TTL looks rich. How bad are these voltage concerns, as I am firing this pilot light on it's lowest power as a nice fill ?

November 05, 2007 3:43 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

What IS the problem with Canon?? They make an off camera flash cord!

November 19, 2007 7:22 PM  
Anonymous Gene said...

There is no PC connector on the Canon Rebel XTi, but there is a hot shoe adapter that may solve the problem. Speedotron Safe Sync Hot Shoe Adapter
Mfr# 23508 • B&H# SPSHSA
For a Price of $ 84.95 at
This device slips onto a camera's hot shoe, and provides a terminal for connecting studio strobes and monolights. It also has circuitry that reduces the sync-line voltage to a safe level, thus protecting your camera from damage. The specs don't say that it is a hot shoe to PC connector, but the picture sure looks like one.

December 11, 2007 12:05 PM  
Blogger charlie thiel photo said...

Fellow Canon users and canon flash newbies, do not despair... to clarify a few Canon things. Yes, Canon does offer the IR (infrared) wireless transmitter. The benefit of it over any of the wireless transmitters is that it IS E-TTL with canon flashes (meaning it will, if you want it to, control the light output of each flash for a properly exposed image. The downside is its limited range and line of sight requirement. It fails to fire the flashes consistently as the distance to the flashes increases. The big downside is the flash must be visible to the controller unit. Yes, the IR beam from the controller will bounce off walls, but if the flash is behind a person outside as a rim light it will fail every time. I have found the Canon wireless controller to be very frustrating. If you are interested in using a radio flash controller (like Pocket Wizard), you can place the flashes pretty much anywhere you want to place them, and the flashes will fire every time. The downside is Pocketwizard is not E-TTL compatible, meaning it will not control your flashes output automatically. Thus, the good experience of learning to control your flash manually (which is what strobist is all about - personal flash creativity). To use Pocket Wizard or any radio flash controller with canon flashes, buy a hot shoe adapter. A previous post listed paramount cords, and I'm sure B&H photo or Adorama or Midwest Photo Exchange has the cords. It is $45 on Paramount cords. I bet you can find it cheaper. Also, the option of flash slave adapters might be a cheaper option? I don't know. But, canon shooters, we can do the same stuff the nikon shooters can do, you just need an adapter cord. No worries!

December 24, 2007 9:42 AM  
Blogger Richard said...

I have a Nikon D80 and a Nikon SB600 flash. I use the SB600 wirelessly off the camera however I want to add another off camera flash to use wirelessly too. As I really only want it to light backgrounds I don't want to buy another SB600 or 800. Can anyone recommend a cheaper flash that will work with the Nikon wireless lighting system?

January 07, 2008 4:13 PM  
Anonymous danitar said...

I have the Pentax AF-500 FTZ it works as an optical slave flash. I use it with my 550ex bounced from the camera shoe or use the on camera flash, either will set if off...under the right conditions.

January 07, 2008 9:12 PM  
Blogger Andi said...

I'm already lost :( I think I need a 101 class for this 101 blog

January 12, 2008 12:41 PM  
Blogger Crazy Horse Photo Dude said...


I hear you. I am lost at the begging already and flash is the one area that I am a complete Frigtard at.

January 31, 2008 3:34 PM  
Blogger Rob Oresteen said...

Thanks - I have 6 Vivitars now ranging from a 292 to a 285. This will fun learning how to use them.

January 31, 2008 9:13 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I've been thinking like the last ano, would be great to know more specifically for how long a unit can last, and what can go on it and typical repair costs etc.

Another thing on a totally different note is; how close can you fire someone in the eye before its dangerous? I just think its insane how you can walk around with it on auto and potentially shoot a full power point blank into someones face and so on - shouldnt it be dangerous? Its just unknown ground. I atleast am afraid to pop full power on people, and just generally paranoid.. if someone could set it straight for me! gah.

February 05, 2008 11:42 AM  
Blogger Troy said...

I am wondering if the SB-16b might be a good substitiute for the sb-24. cheap on ebay(relatively) i have a d70, and not electronic savvy whatsoerver. just starting out on strobist, and i have very little cash. i really wanted to find some cheap 2b-26's but they are going for over $120 now, so... i'm looking to use pc sync cords etc. anyhoo.... just wondering.

February 05, 2008 6:26 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I purchased 3 Vivitar 285HV strobes from B&H and received them on Monday, 11 Feb. On Tuesday, one gave off a 'POP' sound and stopped to work. On Wednesday, another encounted the same problem.
Today is Thursday and I am returning all three strobes to B&H for a full refund as I have totally lost my confidence in this product. I urge those considering buying this product to think thrice.

Fred from Singapore

February 13, 2008 10:04 PM  
Blogger River said...

I just bought the 580ex II, and it does have a PC connector.

February 15, 2008 11:31 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

M Lane,
Minolta does not have a pc connection on their film cameras (3 xi anyway) I bought an adapter for the hotshoe and an adapter to plug the lights into. Worked fine on my camera. I supose it would wor as well on a digital.

February 19, 2008 8:15 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

The philosophy and practice behind this site (if I follow it) is to use your little flashes like they are mini studio strobes. That is, on manual with you setting the flash power. But I bought fancy Canon strobes to use in E-TTL. Not to use them in manual mode. For that I would have bought a cheap flash. E-TTL is just faster. Take a shot and if necessary adjust from the baseline Canon shot. Done. Maybe when those radiopopper things come out and I can keep my E-TTL I'll look around there some more.

March 01, 2008 11:05 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I am curious, will the Nikon SB-28's take a standard PC Sync connector ?

Thank you,


March 10, 2008 9:07 PM  
Anonymous Joshua Mahar said...

Ok - I am going to be that guy who asks really basic questions. I have a Nikon SB600. I need some kind of PC adapter that connects to the flash's shoe mount that will then connect to a PC chord (which then goes to the camera), or to a pocket wizard which then communicates with the radio unit connected to my camera. My question is, what the heck adapter should I use with my SB600. For now, I will be going with PC chord to camera, and eventually move up to radio, but I am looking for a precise product with a precise name that I can search for on the web. Can you, or someone point me in the right direction.
Thanks for any help you can give.

March 20, 2008 12:59 PM  
Blogger Lola said...

So I take it that the Canon 580EX II can be used through the PC terminal then? thank god for that, I just bought and was feeling so let down as I read my way from the top of this to the bottom!

March 20, 2008 6:06 PM  
Blogger Lola said...

This comment has been removed by the author.

March 20, 2008 6:08 PM  
Blogger Lola said...

I've just started to look at the strobist website and read through 101 lighting,
I have a Canon Mark II 1D which has a PC sync and a Canon 580 EX II which also has a PC sync. They look like they are both male, but Im not sure. So do I buy a female to female PC cord to fit them? If I want to use my 580 EX II off the camera, can I just get an ST E2 wireless transmitter to put on the hotshoe and then fire off two remote flashes from that? Also I am interested the PWs but if I get another a 2nd flash will that require a 3rd PW or can the two trigger multiple flash units?

Any help you can offer would greatly be appreciated as Im really confused about all the accessories and what would be the best solution my my camera.

March 23, 2008 7:22 PM  
Blogger David said...


Actually, if you look closely, you'll see that the PC jacks are both female (look at the very center) so a male-to-male PC cord will do nicely.

Also, the STE2 will work with that setup, too. As will a Pocket Wizard, or just about any other remote trigger.

You have lots of choices...


March 24, 2008 3:28 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


April 07, 2008 11:24 PM  
Blogger David said...

To Anonymous-

Yes, they do. But you might also read the instructions just above where you fired off the anonymous, all-caps question:

Especially #5:

5. If you have gear or technique questions, you'll want to ask them in the Strobist Flickr threads, here. I am very sorry, but I do not have time for the volume of one-to-one equipment and technique questions that come in. Besides, in the Flickr group you'll get much better/faster/more diverse responses in the threads. If you are asking about a post that is still current (i.e., front page of the blog) you will likely get answers here from other readers.

April 07, 2008 11:55 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

would a nikon SB-50 work well for a strobist setup?

April 10, 2008 7:25 PM  
Blogger Tony said...

Does the 430EX have a PC Sync port?

I have three flashes, a 580EX II, a 430EX, and an MR-14EX Ringflash. The 580 and 14 can be a master, but the line-of-sight thing might be an issue for Me. Should I get another 580EX II?

May 29, 2008 9:19 AM  
Anonymous Tim said...

I'm confused, people on here are saying that the Canon 580 doesn't have a PC connector, but I'm looking at it on b&h right now, and they say "Off Camera Terminal Yes; PC connector"

Am I missing something? I don't want to get this flash on then be out of luck.

June 24, 2008 11:04 PM  
Blogger David said...

Tim -

You are probably looking at the 580 II, which does have a PC jack. The first model 580, contemporary to this post, did not.

-David Hobby

June 25, 2008 12:07 AM  
Anonymous Tim said...

Hi David,

- Thank you for clearing that up. I'll probably get this one, then. Excited, as I've never controlled lighting before (advanced amateur). This site seems like it will be very helpful. Thank you!

June 26, 2008 2:28 AM  
Blogger Lyman said...

I have a Canon Rebel xti and am looking for a strobe/flash device which works both on and off the camera mount with appropriate attachment equipment. I am new to this digital camera subject and would appreciate some help. i understand the Canon 580 II with other parts will work and not harm the camera.

Q1. What other parts are needed.\?
Q2. Good source for all?


July 03, 2008 3:54 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hey David. In your introduction, you mention that we should have a flash with two specific features...sync port and adjustable power. This is kind of misleading. I understand you're trying to get people away from the idea of moving their lights around to control output, but output can be regulated with the use of ND gels. You just have to deal with a full pop and long recycle times. I mention all this because I pointed someone to your blog and he immediately gave up when he saw these recommendations because the lights he was trying to use didn't have adjustable power. Might be worth revisiting.

July 08, 2008 12:55 AM  
Blogger Tim Cully said...

i'm a canon user and can see the point in using a nikon which has a built in pc socket, if you never need to use it on the camera, I have canon 540, 550 and 580 mark 1, all of these don't have a built in PS socket, the way I got around this was to buy hot shoes with pc cord which i then fitted the cheap Ebay wireless units too and fired them this way, unfortunitely the ebay units have a habit of not firing, so i bought Elinchrom skyport units, I adapted the hotshoes by cutting of the pc socket and fitted a mini jack, this now plugs into the skyport, with the canon flashes mounted on the cheap hot shoes and it works everytime,

I can see the point of using speedlites on some shoots over strobes with modelling lights, I own both setups, but where the speedlites rigs really let the side down is if using a brolly, they can be blown over very easily, indoors or evening shoots where the modelling light on the studio strobes can close down the model eyes Iris to give a more pleasing image and help with focusing.

just a few thoughts.


August 21, 2008 12:37 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

i have a canon xti and i was wondering would i be able to buy two nikon sb-24's and use them both as off camera flashes? one hand held, the other on a stand? would i need pc cords or hotshoe?

September 18, 2008 1:05 PM  
Anonymous Will said...

I have a Pentax K20D and put a Nikon SB-28 on it last night and it worked. Will this combo cause any damage to my K20?

September 20, 2008 3:26 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Could someone tell me if the 285hv works with the eos rebel 300D? What about other rebels such as the 350, 400, etc.. I have a 300D now and would like to get a flash unit for it but would like it to work with other later upgrades. I like what I have seen and read about the 285hv and so far am focused on this unit but am always happy to hear other suggestions. Thanks!!

October 04, 2008 12:06 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Please note: I have just ordered a pair of Vivitar 285HVs from Amazon after finding out that MPEX are out of stock. MPEX told me Vivitar has sold the product manufacturing rights to the flash unit and are not producing more, and that new units from the new manufacturer are several months away from production. It might be a good time to pick 285HVs up if you can find them. Cheers, Martin

October 08, 2008 12:01 PM  
Anonymous camerz1 said...

I am a childrens portrait photograher--5yrs and younger in preschools & daycares hundreds of children daily for ten yrs. I'm amazingly succesful!!! Finally I'm ready to get artsy. Been using 2 elincrome monolights at a certain distance for more than 10 yrs. From whar I've read so far ya'll make it sound easy to take a small flash and get the results I want. Help me step into the present.
frustated 101

October 18, 2008 5:28 AM  
Blogger Jordan Gamble said...

What if someone just wants to buy a strobe and move on? Can't SOMEBODY just give a list of recommendations?!
(A little more info than whats given in "traveling light")

October 20, 2008 11:08 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I have a Canon EOS 400D and just bought a 430 EX II flash. I feel let down after reading the comments, not because of my choice of flash; but ending up totally confused. Can anyone write a summary for Canon users or point to another article which will clarify more?

October 24, 2008 10:48 PM  
Blogger carl h. said...

^ I agree. I have the same setup and am completely confused. I understand that neither the XTi or the 430EX have PC connections...but still confused. Any help?

October 29, 2008 12:47 PM  
Blogger Tim Cully said...

Hi Carl. one of the easiest ways to solve your problem is to buy a hotshoe adapter with a PC lead attached to it, I got mine for £8 from jessops UK but you can buy them on ebay. you then need to get some kind of radio/wireless set so you can fire the flash remotely. you have a few options, cheapest versions can be bought from Ebay for $30, I used these with studio strobes from about a year, they worked well 95% of the time in the studio, though you will have some misfires, I tried them out doors with a strobist style shooting and to be honest they let me down alot, Elichrom Skyport system would be the next step in the price range, I bought these and they work everytime, you need to by the set, which includes a transmitter that fits onto your camera Hotshoe and a receiver that attachs to the hotshoe adapter you will have to buy for your flashgun, (please note, if you are using the Elichrom Skyport then you need to buy a hotshoe adapter which has a lead and a minijack on the end, you then attach your flashgun to the hotshoe adapter and fit the Skyport receiver via the mini jack. once you fire the camera which has the transmitter fitted the Flash will now fire. Pocket wizard is the most expensive wireless style system, though is it a brilliant piece of kit, it will probably cost you $600-700 for a pair of these, they are very good bur very expensive, you will still need a hotshoe adapter for your flashgun. this is all based on using one flash gun, for each speedlite you add to your setup you will have to buy another receiver, so it can become very costly for multi flash setups. Final note, Canon sell a unit that slips onto your hotshoe of the camera that can control the flash unit, but the flash unit has to be inline of sight for it to work,

hope this makes sense.



October 29, 2008 2:04 PM  
Blogger Andy said...

For any UK readers who are after a cheap cable for connecting Pocket Wizards or Elinchrom Skyports to their flashes, I recommend these cables, as they're just the right length, and the price is great too ;)

November 20, 2008 12:55 PM  
Blogger Jon said...

Wasn't sure where to share this. Popped up in a Gmail adwords ad. Highly entertaining to try to read in English. I speak Japanese, so sometimes I can tell what they were trying to say and was poorly translated. Other times I have no idea what they're saying.

If the marketing material is to be believed (and it's a sufficiently shiny site to make me think it could be) they sound like good units. In particular they claim full functionality with Nikon's Creative Lighting System, and have full manual control and built-in slaves.


- Jon

P.S. Sorry if this is a repeat post. A search on this site for their company name came back empty.

December 16, 2008 1:44 AM  
Anonymous Bard said...

I am a Canon shooter with a 450D or XSi as it's called in US, which do not have a PC connector. No big deal you can buy cheap hotshoe to PC adapters for less than 10$ or the Nikon AC-15 for 15$ there is the PC connector.

The new 580EXII has PC connector and manual settings no problem there at all. For the other flashes from Canon which don't it's very simple to buy the Wein HSH which plugs on the hotshoe of the flash and via a PC Male to Household cable works great. So I do not see the big issue here at all...

December 19, 2008 1:14 PM  
Blogger VanGoth said...

Hi guys n girls. i have one flash sunpack auto260 - what do you think about that flash gun? I am begginer. THX

January 07, 2009 3:52 PM  
Anonymous Htet San said...


I currently bought Canon40D so my budget is totally run out.I want to know whether the Nikon SB 24,26,28 that you mentioned are compatible with my 40D? Can i use then safely?
Please reply my comment :)

January 10, 2009 5:21 AM  
Blogger Tim Cully said...

Hello Htet San,

Nice camera you bought yourself, unfortunitely the nikons flash units will not work attached to the 40D hotshoe, but they will work independant if you buy a trigger system such as the elinchrom Skyport or pocket wizzard, hope this helps.

January 10, 2009 12:26 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

And what about pentax flashes? like the old af-500 tfz.

January 19, 2009 9:55 AM  
Anonymous sydney said...

i have a nikon sb 600 flash and a nikon d90.
if i were to buy a hot shoe adapter and a sync cord, would that work as well?
i don't want to spend the money on another flash.

February 03, 2009 7:57 PM  
Blogger Csanad said...

HI there. i have CAnon 400D and wonder what would be the best hot shoe 2 PC adapter to protect my camera from overvoltage. can anyone recommend any specific brand?

February 04, 2009 3:24 PM  
Blogger timothy said...

Can someone confirm exactly what 'plug' feature is required in the first photo David shows? Is it the top or bottom female plug? And what is the technical term of this? I ask b/c I'm looking at an older flash and trying to determine if I can use via pocket wizards. Thanks in advance! TM

April 28, 2009 12:18 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Will the old Vivitar 283 work with Canon? I have 3 of them that I need to try to use.

May 01, 2009 12:05 AM  
Anonymous Yoghi said...

I just found an eighties old-stuff Canon Speedlite 277T, and it works well with an optical trigger made by Kokaii. Unfortunatelly, I have to restart the speedlite everytime I pop the flash. Duno why..

In order to improve my flexibility, I just bought a wireless radio trigger made in China, named PT04TM and they work very well.. I bought an additional PT04TM receiver for my SB-800 and also work very well..

May 10, 2009 11:25 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello I'm excited to learn the strobist techniques. I have nikon D40, sb-25 and also sb-26.

how many flashes is required to make images look great? Also will i need to make sure i have the same about of stands, umbrellas, bracket clamps, and wireless remotes to match my speedlights?

May 13, 2009 7:44 PM  
Blogger Cody said...

Nobody is left out using Canon! Pros use wireless and you don't need a pc socket to trigger your flash wirelessly. Even the less expensive remote triggers for $30 work fine and they don't use a pc sync cord! And you can trigger many flashes at the same time. One of the points to using a speedlight off camera is portability, if you're using cords why not just get a regular studio monolight?

May 14, 2009 3:34 PM  
Anonymous Theresa B said...

Does the universal translator replace any of the equipment listed here?

May 16, 2009 12:05 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

i'm using a canon 30d which has a pc connection. Would any of these work canon 420 ez
canon 430 ez
canon 550 ez

May 26, 2009 9:24 AM  
OpenID 8ightdaysaweek said...

I have just started reading the Lighting 101
May I make a suggestion? Disable Comments?
I have just waded through all the comments on lesson 1 and most of them are questions which remain unanswered and rightly so because you don't have the time. So why allow comments at all? As you have directed people to ask their question at the Flickr group.

Just my thoughts, otherwise thank you for taking the time to put all this hard work into what promises to be an excellent series of lessons. Cheers

June 18, 2009 5:19 AM  
Anonymous David Desjardins said...

I've just finished watching the DVD version of the seminar. One quote came to mind early on in the lecture...."Give a man a fish and feed him for one day, teach a man to fish and feed him for the rest of his life." Excellent DVD, it brought so much into prospective. Although I'm a few years late as it was made in 2007.

July 03, 2009 1:58 AM  
Blogger Terry Thomas... the photographer said...

I immediately see two problems with Lighting 101.

The flash adapter discussed is NOT a "HS-HH" it is a "HS-PC".

HS-HH = female hot shoe + HouseHold female port

HS-PC = female hot shoe + female PC port

There is a big difference. Plus there is the danger some doofus could plug in a *hot* AC electrical cord. (Trust me, it's been known to happen.)

Second problem:
The author writes, "Important: Avoid the used 285HV's unless you know for sure how to decipher which ones have digital-camera-safe voltage synch levels." But fails to say HOW to know or even point to a link giving the information.

Editor: please correct these problems.


Terry Thomas...
the photographer
Atlanta, Georgia USA

I have been a photographer since 1955.

July 27, 2009 10:44 AM  
Anonymous Eric Baines said...

Think, Terry.

How could you plug a "hot" male AC cord into a female HH to female HH cord?

Answer: You can't. Because it is the AC receptacle in the wall that carries the juice.

No male AC cord is hot until it is plugged in. Then noting male is exposed. No female-to-female extension sync cord is hot, ever. Because there is nothing plugged in.


July 27, 2009 11:41 AM  
Blogger gabe said...

Has anyone tried or had experience with Adorama's Adorlight twinblitz flash unit? I'm a newb to strobist putting together my kit on a shoestring student budget. For $50 I can get one new, or go with a used Nikon SB-24 for $70 or of course the Vivitar 285HV for around $90. Any thoughts or help would be much appreciated. Thanks!

October 12, 2009 7:59 PM  
Blogger Paul said...

Am I correct in saying that the Vivitar 285HV is now being sold as the Cactus KF-36?

November 01, 2009 7:47 AM  
Blogger NoPain said...

I have tried triggering my Sigma DG 530 super with inbuilt flash of my Canon D500 (Rebel in USA). Altyhough th etrigger is successful but I cant see the flash exposure on my photographs. IS that a synching problem? Do I need to change any settings in my camera? Or is it an incompatibility issue?
I'd dappriciate any input.
Glad to be a member of this great community!

December 08, 2009 5:59 PM  
Blogger Gary Heller said...

Just my two cents here.
I have two 580EXll Speedlites which are pretty amazing not just for their power output but also for its low output as well. Canon has finally put a PC sync terminal on these things and so they can be fired with wireless transmitters with no adaptations required.
I grew tired of the poor communication of the IR signal and so finally made the jump to a wireless radio set. The Pocket wizards are super expensive and I did not like thinking about slipping a cheap chinese made alternative onto my 3,000.00 camera body so I looked close into the Cybersync units by Paul Buff. Excellent decision, for me anyway. These units look pretty good, come complete with three different plugs for whatever hookup you may need as well as coming with batteries too (I purchased the battery powered units)
They seem to work flawlessly everytime. The only trouble I ran into was that I need to set the Speedlite Custom functions 1 to"1" so that they do not go to sleep after a few minutes. The PC sync does not wake them.
I had a 420EX speedlite, but having no manual control it is pretty much useless to me.
I ordered the Vivitar 285HV unit from Adorama for 89.00 and the Wein PN peanut optical slave which plugs right into the 285HV. Works like a charm.
I have a photoflex 16x22" softbox which works pretty well with the powerful 580EXll speedlites. I had been recently doing a self portrait and had the speedlite firing at 1/8 power through the softbox with good results. I am amazed that I can get well over 200shots at that power level with a set of duracell 2650 NiMH batteries.
I have a small lumiquest softbox for hotshoe flashes which works well for fill and others stuff, as well as some home made snoots and whatnot.
Now with the addition of the 285HV and the wireless units I am trult inspired by what i see on the Strobist blog and look forward to learning and reading about new techniques and ideas.
Great blog, keep up the excellent work.

December 10, 2009 7:10 PM  
Blogger lukejconnor said...

I'm looking at buying my first flash gear...I'm looking at a Vivitar 285, and a Quantum Radio Slave to trigger the flash wirelessly. I am, however, not too sure what I need in regards to the Quantum Radio Slave...I keep seeing "remote" or "receiver", and I'm not sure which goes onto the camera and which goes onto the flash. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

February 15, 2010 12:48 AM  
Blogger Ross said...

I've had trouble syncing my Metz 48 Pentax flash to my camera using my school's available Canon sync cords. Using the Canon cable, the flash can fire with the camera, but I can't get rear curtain functionality. The Metz has a PC cable but I'm hesitant to buy a PC cable as well as a UT. Does anyone know if the UT hotshoe will improve functionality or should I just get a PC sync cable?

May 24, 2010 2:47 PM  
Blogger Pahhhoul said...

Will the Universal Translator work to make my SB-600 remote flash capable with my my D5000?

May 28, 2010 2:27 AM  
Blogger jujubeeartphotography said...

Need Suggestions: Best external light source for 'dusk' wedding on Oct 1 for Canon 40D?
I am shooting my second wedding (1st one was outside during the day) at dusk on Oct. 1st. I need help deciding on an external light source for my Canon 40D. Do I need one? What’s a reasonable cost bracket? Do I need a remote trigger? How much equipment is enough and not too much? Thank you!!

September 24, 2010 1:12 PM  
Blogger vladina said...

In case you need a LumoPro LP160 and you happen to live somewhere around Europe, you can find it here for just (as of Nov 2010) €139

(and thank you!)

November 06, 2010 3:16 PM  
Blogger Ms.Balut said...

aloha! i have a nikon d5000 and I would love to experiment with off camera flash. What would you guys suggest? I want something affordable. Thanks, Angela

November 22, 2010 11:48 PM  
Blogger Ms.Balut said...

hi guys,

I have a d5000 and I want to try off camera flash. Do you guys have any suggestions? I would like something affordable. I know some flashes like the sb-28 works for d5000 but a lot of people are telling me that I have to use it manually. That part made me a little confused. Any suggestions will be appreciated :) thanks...

November 22, 2010 11:51 PM  
Blogger BZB said...

I have a nikon D7000 and it comes with an HDMI port, a high speed USB port and 3.5mm stereo mic inout jack. Im thinking I wont have a way to connect this LP-160 to my camera. Any other alternative?

January 23, 2011 4:47 AM  
Blogger Mark B. said...

My SB-28DX goes into STBY even when it is switched OFF. Any ideas what this means? I Use the MODE/PWR buttons together to switch off STBY and 80 seconds later it goes into STBY again. HELP

March 14, 2011 7:10 AM  
Blogger ❀Aku Budak Lompat ®❀ said...

i found a national pe-145 flash in my grandpa's locker.. is it in anyway can be compatible with nikon d60? just curious..

August 31, 2011 11:00 AM  
OpenID nomilknocry said...

dear Strobist,
i'm a micro 4/3 user camera...
do you have any suggestions for me to start this kind of lighting?
thank you!

October 16, 2011 1:30 AM  
Blogger Moley said...

Hi all.

I love my photography dearly and own a Canon 550d. I found this strobist blog and got all excited till I saw the price of the Canon speedlights!
BUT - I then discovered Yongnuo Speedlights and now have a YN565 and a YN560 for around a 1/4 and an 1/8 the price of a 580.
I've not had them long so no comments on reliability yet, but as to performance - well they're great. I've seen online tests where the 580 outperforms them slightly in certain areas, but for the enthusiast they're fab.
Just wanted to let the Canon users know there is a cheaper alternative to the 580. BTW, I use the cactus wireless triggers and they're great too, just bear there range in mind.

October 19, 2011 5:24 PM  
Blogger David Hobby said...


Good luck with those. They have a pretty bad reliability record. I really wanted to like them, but cannot in good conscience recommend them.

October 19, 2011 10:18 PM  
Blogger JPPhotoInOC said...

I too have and reccommend the YN-560. I have had 6 of the YN-560's (had 3 for over a year, moved cross country and moving company destroyed everything I own including camera equipment, bought 3 more to replace the original) and I have never had an issue with any of them at all. I especially like that the optical trigger on them works well so I rarely even need my radio triggers.

December 02, 2011 3:59 PM  
Blogger Jon Elk said...

So I'm thinking of buying a cheap Yongnuo YN-462. My consern is does it have enough power? Guide no 33 is quite small right?

January 24, 2012 7:22 AM  
Blogger Gabi Bucataru said...

hi there! Is it me, since I cannot find any info about the Nikon SB-28DX flash. I could swear I read about it here and the differences between the DX and the regular 28


June 11, 2012 10:40 AM  
Blogger Heidi said...

Ok, I'm really hoping someone answers this! haha! I was excited to find strobist. I'm very noob at photography, even more so with lighting. teaching myself, taking photography starting in the winter. I have been doing natural lighting photo shoots and decided that in WA state with all this rain, I will need to invest in lighting for indoor shoots. I made it as far as the off camera lighting and noticed comments about an issue with canon? I have (for now) a Canon Rebel xsi ... hoping to get a 5D Mark II in the next few months. I'm not wanting to spend thousands on lighting but I don't want junk either. Can I start to get my lighting now to work with my Rebel that will also be compatible with the 5D Mark II.
I heard that Paul C. Buff has great lighting. Can ANYONE tell me what exactly I will need? The more I read the more confused I get haha!



September 10, 2012 10:39 PM  
Blogger Janet Forsythe said...

hope this thread is still even open. New( as in totally ignorant) at flash, recently bought a Metz 58 AF2 to go with my Canon 40d, the camera has a PC terminal, the flash not( at least I can't find one, it's their newest flash but has only a software port and power pack port as far as I can see). I have a wireless trigger/transmitter for the flash. So am I good to go or do I need something else before I continue?

January 11, 2013 8:42 AM  
Blogger David Hobby said...

Hey Janet-

No closed, per se, but a six-year-old thread is not the best venue to do this, both being stale and one-to-one. I strongly suggest you ask in the Strobist Flickr group discussion threads, which is linked in the footer of this post just above where the comments start. There is a thriving, ongoing discussion group there, with over 100,000 people.


p.s. I know nothing about your Metz flash, but someone there can help you, I am sure!

January 11, 2013 11:19 AM  
Blogger Dina Maria Photography said...

Hi, I was introduced to this site by a pro photographer. I am going through your Lighting 101 lesson and have a question. I own a d90, 2 flashpoint 320M, and an SB600. I normally shoot in Commander mode, use my on camera flash as a trigger (but turn it off so it does not fire) and have my SB600 act as a slave, which seems to trigger my two monolights. Question: Do I need a PC Sync still? The only way to improve my setup is to purchase radio triggers? Thanks

February 04, 2013 3:02 PM  
Blogger David Hobby said...


One-to-one tech questions from six-year-old posts are best asked here rather than in the comments. It is very, very inefficient for me to try to address them here.

Thanks, DH

February 04, 2013 4:31 PM  
Blogger David Hobby said...


Sorry, I accidentally deleted your comment. But I remember it, at least.

Short answer is yes, you can "dumb down" the power of your flash with neutral density gels. They are readily available from Rosco, and you won't have to make any frame of any kind. Just tape them on.

But in practice, this will be very frustrating -- especially for someone just learning. I'd recommend some sort of hot shoe adapter for your camera's hot shoe to make it standard. That was a poor decision on Sony/Minolta. Rather like the Beta tape fiasco of the '80's.

Just Google 'minolta hot shoe adapter PC' to find one that also has a PC jack, to give you the option of syncing with a hard wire or a (standard) hot shoe-based wireless transmitter.

I'd also recommend a manual-capable flash like the LumoPro LP180. As your gear stands, it's a near perfect storm of "non-optimal."

August 03, 2013 8:37 AM  
Blogger Gary C said...

I joined, and reposted on the Flickr forum.
"Non-optimal", I like that. Figures. My problem, of course, is that I have two different flash shoes, the standard 'old Minolta/Sony' shoe, and then new 'i-shoe', which I don't think there's anything for yet. But, I can get an adapter to go from the new i-shoe to the old Minolta/Sony shoe, and I have one of those on the way.

With that, I should be able to shoot using the Pixel Soldier kit.

I was looking at the Rosco Strobist kit, you've made friends in the industry, and I'll probably buy that and a couple more ND filters, at least to get started. When I can afford to go to the LP180's I will, or the YongNou 530 II. Price is a factor in everything I do, and I don't want to drop $400+ for a couple of new flashes. I can't. Heck, even setting up a Build My Own set up for three flashes puts me well over $400, but I also know the merchandise is quality.

I've gone through Lighting 101, and I can't wait to start getting stuff so I can begin to put this stuff together.

For seven years, I've got to admit, The Strobist is a Godsend for education in Lighting.

Thank you for doing it.


August 03, 2013 11:31 PM  
Blogger Gethin Hill said...

hi guys,
i know, super old thread, but i'm confused and don't have flickr!
I'm unsure about the "Universal adapters" that i need to make the 'budget wired 3.5mm' version. Could someone link to one on ebay for me? Are they both the same for flash and camera end? Is there not a male and female version i need? My camera (7d) and intended flash both have PC ports, but i'd like to take advantage of the cheaper audio cable version. please help :(

August 04, 2013 2:05 PM  
Blogger MikeScottPhoto said...

Am I the first one to say thanks for the Bill Murray Caddy Shack quote? Thanks. Keep sneakin' them in..

August 05, 2013 9:09 AM  
Blogger Victor Paereli said...

No! What happened to the little video intro? It was hilarious and I made a point of checking it every time I happened to come back here. Dave, please bring it back.

August 11, 2013 10:45 AM  
Blogger Carl said...

I guess I am one of the lucky ones, my Sony Alpha 77 and Sony HVL-F60M flash both have PC sockets, I just need to buy a cord to link them up.

December 29, 2013 9:13 PM  
Blogger Snappled! said...

I'm going to go out an buy a cheap flash straight away. I'm excited to start exploring. Cheers!

August 16, 2014 9:54 PM  

Post a Comment

<< Home